Concept clarification: discrete conformational heterogeneity

Hi Team,

As I try to understand the different algorithms and the underlying math, I am confused about the concept of discrete conformational heterogeneity (DCH). I do not understand why heterogeneous refinement cannot be used to deal with DCH. Could you please clarify, preferably with an example? Thank you

It can be used for this.

It is less useful for dealing with continuously distributed conformational heterogeneity, where 3D-VA will usually perform better.